J Integr Med. 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22. PMID: 34479848
An overview of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties of Artemisia annua, its antiviral action, protein-associated mechanisms, and repurposing for COVID-19 treatment.
Artemisia annua and its phytocompounds have a rich history in the research and treatment of malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and other diseases. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line treatment for multi-drug-resistant malaria. Due to the various research articles on the use of antimalarial drugs to treat coronaviruses, a question is raised: would A. annua and its compounds provide anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) properties? PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed articles that investigated the antiviral effects and mechanisms of A. annua and its phytochemicals against SARS-CoVs. Particularly, articles that evidenced the herb’s role in inhibiting the coronavirus-host proteins were favored. Nineteen studies were retrieved. From these, fourteen in silico molecular docking studies demonstrated potential inhibitory properties of artemisinins against coronavirus-host proteins including 3CL, S protein, N protein, E protein, cathepsin-L, helicase protein, nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3), nsp10, nsp14, nsp15, and glucose-regulated protein 78 receptor. Collectively, A. annua constituents may impede the SARS-CoV-2 attachment, membrane fusion, internalization into the host cells, and hinder the viral replication and transcription process. This is the first comprehensive overview of the application of compounds from A. annua against SARS-CoV-2/coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) describing all target proteins. A. annua’s biological properties, the signaling pathways implicated in the COVID-19, and the advantages and disadvantages for repurposing A. annua compounds are discussed. The combination of A. annua’s biological properties, action on different signaling pathways and target proteins, and a multi-drug combined-therapy approach may synergistically inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and assist in the COVID-19 treatment. Also, A. annua may modulate the host immune response to better fight the infection.