Environ Int. 2021 Apr 5 ;153:106547. Epub 2021 Apr 5. PMID: 33831741
An overview of the literature on emerging pollutants: Chlorinated derivatives of Bisphenol A (ClBPA).
CONTEXT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous contaminant with endocrine-disrupting effects in mammals. During chlorination treatment of drinking water, aqueous BPA can react with chlorine to form chlorinated derivatives of BPA (mono, di, tri and tetra-chlorinated derivatives) or ClBPA.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to summarize and present the state of knowledge on human toxicological risk assessment of ClBPA.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search on ClBPA in the PubMed database was performed based on studies published between 2002 and 2021. Forty-nine studies on chlorinated derivatives of BPA were found. Available information on their sources and levels of exposure, their effects, their possible mechanisms of action and their toxicokinetics data was extracted and presented.RESULTS: ClBPA have been essentially detected in environmental aqueous media. There is evidence in toxicological and epidemiological studies that ClBPA also have endocrine-disrupting capabilities. These emerging pollutants have been found in human urine, serum, breast milk, adipose and placental tissue and can constitute a risk to human health. However, in vitro and in vivo toxicokinetic data on ClBPA are scarce and do not allow characterization of the disposition kinetics of these compounds.CONCLUSION: More research to assess their health risks, specifically in vulnerable populations, is needed. Some water chlorination processes are particularly hazardous, and it is important to evaluate their chlorination by-products from a public health perspective.