Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2021 ;2021:6671130. Epub 2021 Jul 6. PMID: 34326888
Ethanolic Extract ofTreatment in the Early Stage of Hyperglycemia Condition Inhibits Glomerular Injury and Vascular Remodeling in Diabetic Rat Model.
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is marked by oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular dysfunction that caused diabetic nephropathy that resulted in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Vascular dysfunction is characterized by an imbalance in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents which underlies the mechanism of vascular injury in DM. Additionally, diminished podocytes correlate with the severity of kidney injury. Podocyturia often precedes proteinuria in several kidney diseases, including diabetic kidney disease.(CeA) is known as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant and has neuroprotective effects. This research aimed to investigate the potential effect of CeA to inhibit glomerular injury and vascular remodeling in DM.Methods: The DM rat model was induced through intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 60 mg/kg body weight (BW), and then rats were divided into 1-month DM (DM1, = 5), 2-month DM (DM2, = 5), early DM concurrent with CeA treatment for 2 months (DMC2, = 5), and 1-month DM treated with CeA for 1-month (DM1C1, = 5). The CeA (400 mg/kg BW) was given daily via oral gavage. The control group (Control, = 5) was maintained for 2 months. Finally, rats were euthanized and kidneys were harvested to assess vascular remodeling using Sirius Red staining and the mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase, podocytes marker, ACE2, eNOS, and ppET-1 using RT-PCR.Results: The DM groups demonstrated significant elevation of glucose level, glomerulosclerosis, and proteinuria. A significant reduction of SOD1 and SOD3 promotes the downregulation of nephrin and upregulation of TRPC6 mRNA expressions in rat glomerular kidney. Besides, this condition enhanced ppET-1 and inhibited eNOS and ACE2 mRNA expressions that lead to the development of vascular remodeling marked by an increase of wall thickness, and lumen wall area ratio (LWAR). Treatment of CeA, especially the DMC2 group, attenuated glomerular injury and showed the reversal of induced conditions.Conclusions: treatment at the early stage of diabetes mellitus ameliorates glomerulosclerosis and vascular injury via increasing antioxidant enzymes.