Mar Drugs. 2021 Mar 15 ;19(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15. PMID: 33804171
Dieckol Ameliorates Aβ Production via PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Regulated APP Processing in SweAPP N2a Cell.
The proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) byβ-secretase (BACE1) and γ-secretase releases amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which deposits in amyloid plaques and contributes to the initial causative events of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, the regulatory mechanism of APP processing of three phlorotannins was elucidated in Swedish mutant APP overexpressed N2a (SweAPP N2a) cells. Among the tested compounds, dieckol exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on both intra- and extracellular Aβ accumulation. In addition, dieckol regulated the APP processing enzymes, such as α-secretase (ADAM10), β-secretase, and γ-secretase, presenilin-1 (PS1), and their proteolytic products, sAPPα and sAPPβ, implying that the compound acts on both the amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways. In addition, dieckol increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) at Ser473 and GSK-3β at Ser9, suggesting dieckol induced the activation of Akt, which phosphorylated GSK-3β. The specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 triggered GSK-3β activation and Aβ expression. In addition, co-treatment with LY294002 noticeably blocked the effect of dieckol on Aβ production, demonstrating that dieckol promoted the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which in turn inactivated GSK-3β, resulting in the reduction in Aβ levels.