Mar Drugs. 2019 Feb 1 ;17(2). Epub 2019 Feb 1. PMID: 30717280
Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol Attenuates Fine Particulate Matter-Induced Subcellular Skin Dysfunction.
The skin, the largest organ in humans, is exposed to major sources of outdoor air pollution, such as fine particulate matter with a diameter≤ 2.5 µm (PM). Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), a marine-based compound, possesses multiple activities including antioxidant effects. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effect of DPHC on PM-induced skin cell damage and elucidated the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that DPHC blocked PM-induced reactive oxygen species generation in human keratinocytes. In addition, DPHC protected cells against PM-induced DNA damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagy. HR-1 hairless mice exposed to PMshowed lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and increased epidermal height, which were inhibited by DPHC. Moreover, PMinduced apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein expression; however, these changes were attenuated by DPHCMAPK inhibitors were used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these actions, and the results demonstrated that MAPK signaling pathway may play a key role in PM-induced skin damage.