Mar Drugs. 2021 Feb 27 ;19(3). Epub 2021 Feb 27. PMID: 33673531
Attenuates PM-Induced Cognitive Decline through Mitochondrial Activation and Anti-Inflammatory Effect.
To evaluate the effects of() on ambient-pollution-induced neurotoxicity, we used a mouse model exposed to particulate matter smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM). The intake of water extract from(WEE) effectively prevented the learning and memory decline. After a behavioral test, the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-initiated inflammatory response was confirmed by PMexposure in the lung and brain tissues, and the WEE was regulated through the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/inflammasome formation signaling pathway and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IFN-γ). The WEE also effectively improved the PM-induced oxidative damage of the lungs and brain through the inhibition of malondialdehyde (MDA) production and the activation of mitochondrial activity (mitochondrial ROS content, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic molecules). In particular, the WEE regulated the cognition-related proteins (a decreased amyloid precursor protein (APP) and p-Tau, and an increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)) associated with PM-induced cognitive dysfunction. Additionally, the WEE prevented the inactivation of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release as a neurotransmitter by regulating the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and ACh receptor (AChR)-α3 in the brain tissue. The bioactive compounds of the WEE were detected as the polysaccharide (average Mw; 160.13 kDa) and phenolic compounds including 2′-phloroeckol.