Mar Drugs. 2019 Jul 27 ;17(8). Epub 2019 Jul 27. PMID: 31357588
Eckol Inhibits Particulate Matter 2.5-Induced Skin Keratinocyte Damage via MAPK Signaling Pathway.
Toxicity of particulate matter (PM) towards the epidermis has been well established in many epidemiological studies. It is manifested in cancer, aging, and skin damage. In this study, we aimed to show the mechanism underlying the protective effects of eckol, a phlorotannin isolated from brown seaweed, on human HaCaT keratinocytes against PM-induced cell damage. First, to elucidate the underlying mechanism of toxicity of PM, we checked the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, which contributed significantly to cell damage. Experimental data indicate that excessive ROS caused damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA and induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, eckol (30μM) decreased ROS generation, ensuring the stability of molecules, and maintaining a steady mitochondrial state. The western blot analysis showed that PMpromoted apoptosis-related protein levels and activated MAPK signaling pathway, whereas eckol protected cells from apoptosis by inhibiting MAPK signaling pathway. This was further reinforced by detailed investigations using MAPK inhibitors. Thus, our results demonstrated that inhibition of PM-induced cell apoptosis by eckol was through MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, eckol could protect skin HaCaT cells from PM-induced apoptosis via inhibiting ROS generation.