Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Oct 12 ;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12. PMID: 33053761
Protective Effect of Geraniol on Oxidative, Inflammatory and Apoptotic Alterations in Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiotoxicity: Role of the Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathways.
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) is still a major contributor to mortality worldwide, and therefore, searching for new drugs is an urgent priority. Natural products are a renewable source for medicinally and pharmacologically active molecules. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of geraniol, a monoterpene alcohol, to protect against MI.METHODS: Five groups of Wister rats were used: a control group; a group treated only with geraniol; a group treated only with isoproterenol, to induce MI; and two groups pretreated with geraniol (100 or 200 mg/kg, respectively) for 14 days and challenged with isoproterenol on the 13th and 14th days. Several parameters were measured including electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac markers, the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and other downstream antioxidant enzymes, as well as the expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and other downstream apoptotic and inflammatory mediators.RESULTS: Geraniol treatment reduced the size of the infarct region, attenuated the levels of cardiac indicators, and diminished myocardial necrosis and immune cell infiltration. Geraniol treatment also activated the Keap1/Nrf2/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway, increased antioxidant enzyme activities, modulated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and ameliorated myocardial autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis.CONCLUSION: Geraniol may possess a protective effect against MI through moderating MI-induced myocardial oxidative stress (glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and Keap1/Nrf2 pathway), inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)), apoptosis (caspase-3, caspase-9, Bcl2, and Bax), and autophagy (PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway).