Cell Commun Signal. 2019 06 11 ;17(1):62. Epub 2019 Jun 11. PMID: 31186013
Oridonin protects LPS-induced acute lung injury by modulating Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress and Nrf2-independent NLRP3 and NF-κB pathways.
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and the resulting inflammation are essential pathological processes in acute lung injury (ALI). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a vital transcriptional factor, possesses antioxidative potential and has become a primary target to treat many diseases. Oridonin (Ori), isolated from the plant Rabdosia Rrubescens, is a natural substance that possesses antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Our aim was to study whether the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Ori on LPS-induced ALI were mediated by Nrf2.METHODS: MTT assays, Western blotting analysis, a mouse model, and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining were employed to explore the mechanisms by which Ori exerts a protective effect on LPS-induced lung injury in RAW264.7 cells and in a mouse model.RESULTS: Our results indicated that Ori increased the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes (HO-1, GCLM), which was mediated by the activation of Akt and MAPK. Additionally, Ori inhibited LPS-induced activation of the pro-inflammatory pathways NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB pathways. These two pathways were also proven to be Nrf2-independent by the use of a Nrf2 inhibitor. In keeping with these findings, Ori alleviated LPS-induced histopathological changes, the enhanced production of myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde, and the depleted expression of GSH and superoxide dismutase in the lung tissue of mice. Furthermore, the expression of LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB pathways was more evident in Nrf2-deficient mice but could still be reversed by Ori.CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that Ori exerted protective effects on LPS-induced ALI via Nrf2-independent anti-inflammatory and Nrf2-dependent antioxidative activities.