Am J Chin Med. 2021 Apr 7:1-15. Epub 2021 Apr 7. PMID: 33829964
Saponins Modulate the Inflammatory Response and Improve IBD-Like Symptoms via TLR/NF-[Formula: see text]B and MAPK Signaling Pathways.
saponins (PNS) are the main active ingredients of(Burk) F. H. Chen, which are used as traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years and have various clinical effects, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and cardiovascular protection. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex gastrointestinal inflammatory disease that cannot be cured completely nowadays. The anti-inflammatory and protective effects of PNS were analyzedand in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. PNS inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] (TNF-[Formula: see text], interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in Pam3CSK4-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. In the animal study, compared with DSS-induced mice, PNS reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-[Formula: see text], IL-6, and MCP-1) in the colon tissues. Furthermore, PNS treatment led to a remarkable reduction in the activation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] (IKK[Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text], I[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text] and p65 induced by DSS. On the other hand, PNS inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Taken together, our results suggested that PNS conferred profound protection for colitis mice through the downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-[Formula: see text]B signaling pathways, which were associated with reducing inflammatory responses, alleviating tissue damage, and maintaining of intestinal integrity and functionality.