Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Jun 29:111666. Epub 2021 Jun 29. PMID: 34215478
Phenethyl isothiocyanate attenuates diabetic nephropathy via modulation of glycative/oxidative/inflammatory signaling in diabetic rats.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a diabetic complication characterized by disruption of renal microvasculature, reactive oxygen species accumulation and increased inflammation, all of which contribute to renal injury. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, yet its reno-preventive effects against DN has not been investigated. The current study looked into the in vivo reno-protective effects of PEITC in STZ-induced DN in rats. PEITC (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was administered orally for 8 weeks post DM establishment. PEITC treatment significantly improved kidney and liver functions, renal histopathological features, tissue fibrosis, macrophage infiltration and blood glucose levels compared to DN control. Mechanistically, PEITC treatment alleviated DN-induced renal damage via modulating glycation and oxidative stresses and inflammatory response. As such, PEITC activated glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) that induced a retraction in renal tissue expression of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and its receptor (RAGE). PEITC activated nuclear erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased expression of its downstream targets, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and gamma glutamate-cysteine (γ-GCS). Additionally, PEITC treatment decreased the expression of Nrf2 repressor protein, keap1. The anti-inflammatory effect of PEITC was driven, at least in part, via reducing the NLRP3 inflammasome activation as indicated by down regulation of NLRP3, TXNIP, capsase-1 and IL-1β, TNF-alpha and IL-6. In conclusion; PEITC attenuated DN progression in a dose dependent manner mainly via interruption of AGE/RAGE and NLPR3/TXNIP/NrF2 crosstalk.