World J Gastroenterol. 2020 Jun 21 ;26(23):3170-3181. PMID: 32684733
Potential of the ellagic acid-derived gut microbiota metabolite – Urolithin A in gastrointestinal protection.
Urolithin A (UA) is a metabolic compound generated during the biotransformation of ellagitannins by the intestinal bacteria. The physiologically relevant micromolar concentrations of UA, achieved in the plasma and gastrointestinal tract (GI) after consumption of its dietary precursors, have been revealed to offer GI protection. The health benefit has been demonstrated to be principally related to anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. UA has been shown to possess the capability to regulate multiple tumor and inflammatory signaling pathways and to modulate enzyme activity, including those involved in carcinogen biotransformation and antioxidant defense. The purpose of this review is to gather evidence from bothandstudies showing the potential of UA in GI protection alongside suggested mechanisms by which UA can protect against cancer and inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract. The data presented herein, covering both studies on the pure compound andgenerated UA form its natural precursor, support the potential of this metabolite in treatment interventions against GI ailments.