Mar Drugs. 2020 Jul 22 ;18(8). Epub 2020 Jul 22. PMID: 32707897
Topical Application of Phlorotannins from Brown Seaweed Mitigates Radiation Dermatitis in a Mouse Model.
Radiation dermatitis (RD) is one of the most common side effects of radiotherapy; its symptoms progress from erythema to dry and moist desquamation, leading to the deterioration of the patients’ quality of life. Active metabolites in brown seaweed, including phlorotannins (PTNs), show anti-inflammatory activities; however, their medical use is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of PTNs in a mouse model of RD in vivo. X-rays (36 Gy) were delivered in three fractions to the hind legs of BALB/c mice. Macroscopic RD scoring revealed that PTNs significantly mitigated RD compared with the vehicle control. Histopathological analyses of skin tissues revealed that PTNs decreased epidermal and dermal thickness compared with the vehicle control. Western blotting indicated that PTNs augmented nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway activation but attenuated radiation-induced NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and inflammasome activation, suggesting the mitigation of acute inflammation in irradiated mouse skin. PTNs also facilitated fast recovery, as indicated by increased aquaporin 3 expression and decreased γH2AX (histone family member X) expression. Our results indicate that topical PTN application may alleviate RD symptoms by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and by promoting the healing process. Therefore, PTNs may show great potential as cosmeceuticals for patients with cancer suffering from radiation-induced inflammatory side effects such as RD.