Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6. PMID: 33405105
Urtica dioica extracts abolish scopolamine-induced neuropathies in rats.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by alterations in monoamines, oxidative stress, and metabolic dysfunctions. We aim to assess the therapeutic impacts of roots or leaf extract from Urtica dioica (UD; stinging nettle) against scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory dysfunction, amnesia, and oxidative stress in rats. Spatial memory was assessed by Y maze test. Tissue analyses of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH, GSSG), AMP, ADP, and ATP were assessed by HPLC. mRNA levels of Tau and Hsp70 were estimated by PCR. UD extracts particularly nettle root (NR) significantly normalized the SCOP-induced memory deficits even more potent than sermion (SR) and donepezil (DON). Similarly, NR had potent therapeutic impacts on the levels of cortical and hippocampal monoamines e.g. DA, NE, and 5-HT. SCOP induced a dramatic oxidative stress as measured by MDA, NO, and GSSG levels; however, UD extracts showed significant anti-oxidative stress impacts. Additionally, UD extracts restored ATP levels and reduced the levels of AMP and ADP compared to SCOP-treated rats. Furthermore, cortical Tau and hippocampal Hsp70 were modulated by UD extracts particularly NR compared to the SCOP group. In conclusion, UD extracts particularly roots have potential therapeutic impacts against SCOP-induced neuroinflammatory and/or Alzheimer-like phenotype in rats.